Goals and Motivations

The pandas codebase is now over 8 years old, having grown to over 200,000 lines of code from its original ~10,000 LOC in the original 0.1 open source release in January 2010.

At a high level, the “pandas 2.0” effort is based on a number of observations:

  • The pandas 0.x series of releases have consisted with huge amounts of iterative improvements to the library along with some major new features, bug fixes, and improved documentation. There have also been a series of deprecations, API changes, and other evolutions of pandas’s API to account for suboptimal design choices (for example: the .ix operator) made in the early days of the project (2010 to 2012).
  • The unification of Series and DataFrame internals to be based on a common NDFrame base class and “block manager” data structure (originally created by me in 2011, and heroically driven forward to its modern form by Jeff Reback), while introducing many benefits to pandas, has come to be viewed as a long-term source of technical debt and code complexity.
  • pandas’s ability to support an increasingly broad set of use cases has been significantly constrained (as will be examined in detail in these documents) by its tight coupling to NumPy and therefore subject to various limitations in NumPy.
  • Making significant functional additions (particularly filling gaps in NumPy) to pandas, particularly new data types, has grown increasingly complex with very obvious accumulations of technical debt.
  • pandas is being used increasingly for very large datasets on machines with many cores and large amounts of RAM (100s of gigabytes to terabytes). It would be nice to be able to better utilize these larger, beefier systems within a single Python process.
  • pandas is being used increasingly as a computational building block of some larger system, such as Dask or Apache Spark. We should consider reducing the overhead for making data accessible to pandas (i.e. via memory-mapping or other low-overhead memory sharing).
  • Rough edges in pandas’s implementation (e.g. its handling of missing data across data types) are being exposed to users.

These documents are largely concerned with pandas’s internal design, which is mostly invisible to average users. Advanced users of pandas are generally familiar with some of these internal details, particular around performance and memory use, and so the degree to which users are impacted will vary quite a lot.


Some high levels goals of the pandas 2.0 plan include the following:

  • Fixing long-standing limitations or inconsistencies in missing data: null values in integer and boolean data, and a more consistent notion of null / NA.
  • Improved performance and utilization of multicore systems
  • Better user control / visibility of memory usage (which can be opaque and difficult to conttrol)
  • Clearer semantics around non-NumPy data types, and permitting new pandas-only data types to be added
  • Exposing a “libpandas” C/C++ API to other Python library developers: the internals of Series and DataFrame are only weakly accessible in other developers’ native code. This has been a limitation for scikit-learn and other projects requiring C or Cython-level access to pandas object data.
  • Removal of deprecated functionality

Non-goals / FAQ

As this will be a quite nuanced discussion, especially for those not intimately familiar with pandas’s implementation details, I wanted to speak to a couple of commonly-asked questions in brief:

  1. Will this work make it harder to use pandas with NumPy, scikit-learn, statsmodels, SciPy, or other libraries that depend on NumPy interoperability?
  • We are not planning on it. Data that is representable without memory copying or conversion in NumPy arrays will continue to be 100% interoperable.
  • Data containing missing (NA) values may require explicit conversion where it is not currently required. For example: integer or boolean type arrays with missing data. I trust this will be seen as a positive development.
  • If anything, more performant and more precise data semantics in pandas will generally make production code using a downstream library like scikit-learn more dependable and future-proof.

  1. By decoupling from NumPy, it sounds like you are reimplementing NumPy or adding a new data type system
    • Simply put: no. But it’s more complicated than that because of the numerous interpretations of “type system”.
    • pandas already contains a large amount (10s of KLOCs) of custom computational code (see, for example, https://github.com/pydata/pandas/tree/master/pandas/src) that implements functionality not present in NumPy.
    • pandas already features its own (what I will describe as a) “logical type system”, including things like custom data types (such as that of pandas.Categorical), pandas-specific missing data representation, and implicit type casting (e.g. integer to float on introduction of missing data). Unfortunately, these logical data types are somewhat weakly expressed, and the mix of NumPy dtype objects and custom pandas types is problematic for many internal (implementation) and external (user API) reasons. I will examine in detail the difference between physical types (i.e. NumPy’s dtypes) and logical types (i.e. what pandas currently has, implicitly).

  1. Shouldn’t you try to accomplish your goals by contributing work to NumPy instead of investing major work in pandas’s internals?
    • In my opinion, this is a “false dichotomy”; i.e. these things are not mutually exclusive.
    • Yes, we should define, scope, and if possible help implement improvements to NumPy that make sense. As NumPy serves a significantly larger and more diverse set of users, major changes to the NumPy C codebase must be approached more conservatively.
    • It is unclear that pandas’s body of domain-specific data handling and computational code is entirely “in scope” for NumPy. Some technical details, such as our categorical or datetime data semantics, “group by” functionality, relational algebra (joins), etc., may be ideal for pandas but not necessarily ideal for a general user of NumPy. My opinion is that functionality from NumPy we wish to use in pandas should “pass through” to the user unmodified, but we must retain the flexibility to work “outside the box” (implement things not found in NumPy) without adding technical debt or user API complexity.

  1. API changes / breaks are thought to be bad; don’t you have a responsibility to maintain backwards compatibility for users that heavily depend on pandas?
    • It’s true that APIs should not be broken or changed, and as such should be approached with extreme caution.
    • The goal of the pandas 2.0 initiative is to only make “good” API breaks that yield a net benefit that can be easily demonstrated. As an example: adding native missing data support to integer and boolean data (without casting to another physical storage type) may break user code that has knowledge of the “rough edge” (the behavior that we are fixing). As these changes will mostly affect advanced pandas users, I expect they will be welcomed.
    • Any major API change or break will be documented and justified to assist with code migration.
    • As soon as we are able, we will post binary development artifacts for the pandas 2.0 development branch to get early feedback from heavy pandas users to understand the impact of changes and how we can better help the existing user base.
    • Some users will find that a certain piece of code has been working “by accident” (i.e. relying upon undocumented behavior). This kind of breakage is already a routine occurrence unfortunately.


Overall, the goal of the pandas 2.0 project is to yield a faster, more cleanly architected, and more future-proof library that is a drop-in replacement for 90-95% of pandas user code. There will be API / code breakages, but the intent of any code breakage will almost always be to fix something that has been “wrong” or inconsistent. Many advanced users will have worked around some of these rough edges, and so their workarounds may either need to be removed or changed to accommodate the new (and hopefully it can be agreed in each case: better) semantics.